-byProf. Shreedhar A. Joshi , Dr. Rukmini T S , and Dr. Mahesh H M
The performance of Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) systems can be improved by employing a larger number of antennas than actually used or selected subset of antennas. Most of the existing antenna selection algorithms assume perfect channel knowledge and optimize criteria such as Shannon’s capacity on bit error rates. The proposed work examines Antenna diversity and optimal/ sub optimal receive strategy in antenna selection. The numerical results for BER, Information capacity with SNR... Topics: SISO, SIMO, MRC, SNR, BER, SC.
The phase frequency detector has been designed for high frequency phase locked loop in 180 nm CMOS Technology with 1.8V supply voltage using CADENCE Spectre tool. A Virtuoso Analog Design Environment and Virtuoso LayoutXL tools of Cadence have used to design and simulate schematic and layout of phase frequency detector respectively. Architecture of phase frequency detector (PFD) has simulated to get low dead zone and low power consumption. A layout has designed by above tool and DRC by Assura.... Topics: Phase locked loop (PLL), Phase frequency detector (PFD), Charge pump (CP), Voltage controlled...
This paper proposes a compact electric discharge plasma source for controlling NOX emission in diesel engine exhaust. Boost converter is used to boost to solar powered battery voltage to 24V, further an automobile ignition coil was used to generate the high voltage pulse using fly-back topology. This design is aimed at retrofitting the existing catalytic converters with pulse assisted cleaning technique. In this paper we bring out a relative comparison of discharge plasma and plasma-adsorbent... Topics: Electric Discharge, Non-thermal plasma, NOX removal, Diesel engine exhaust, Fly-back
This paper reports improved performance of discharge plasma in filtered engine exhaust treatment. Our paper deals about the removal of NOX emissions from the diesel exhaust by electric discharge plasma. For the treatment of diesel exhaust a new type of reactor referred to as cross-flow dielectric barrier discharge reactor has been used, where the gas flow is perpendicular to the corona electrode. Experiments were conducted at different flow rates ranging from 2 l/min to 10 l/ min. The discharge... Topics: Electric Discharge, Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cross Flow Reactor (CFR), NOX removal, Filtered...
Scaling of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors to smaller dimensions has been a key driving force in the IC industry. This work analysis the gate leakage current behavior of nano scale MOSFET based on TCAD simulation. The Sentaurus Simulator simulates the high-k gate stack structure of N-MOSFET for analysis purpose. The impact of interfacial oxide thickness on the gate tunneling current has been investigated as a function of gate voltages for a given equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.0... Topics: MOESFET, inelastic trap assisted tunnelling, gate tunneling current, High-k stack
This article explores design and analysis of proportional integrator (PI) along with Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) based Shunt active power line conditioners (APLC) for compensating reactive power and harmonic currents drawn by the load. The aim is to study different control strategies for real time compensating current harmonics at different power conditions. The compensation process is based on calculation of unit sine vector and reduces the dc capacitor ripple voltage of the PWM-VSI by using... Topics: Shunt Active Power Line Conditioners (APLC), PI controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC),...
In this paper, an algorithm is presented for identification of real eigenvalues on right half of the s-plane, for linear systems, hence determining instability of the system. The proposed approach is based on Gerschgorin theorem and a new approach of Bisection method. The method is efficient since there is no need to determine all real eigenvalues and also characteristic polynomial of the system matrix. It has been found that in some class of control system problems, the method needs minor... Topics: Instability, System matrix, Gerschgorin theorem, Bisection method, Power system problem.
With the explosive growth of international users, distributed information and the number of linguistic resources, accessible throughout the World Wide Web, information retrieval has become crucial for users to find, retrieve and understand relevant information, in any language and form. Cross- Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) is a subfield of Information Retrieval which provides a query in one language and searches document collections in one or many languages but it also has a specific... Topics: Cross Lingual Information Retrieval, Heuristic Method, Text Categorization
There is often a requirement to fabricate thin glass plates for prototyping purposes in a research lab. For example to make a prototype of an optic filter there is a need to fabricate a number of thin glass plates and in most moderately equipped optic research laboratory there is facility to etch these glass plates, but lacks instruments to measure its thickness. Our main purpose is to design a system which is cost friendly and is capable of measuring the thickness with a resolution lesser than... Topics: Thickness, Measurement, Electronic System, Optic Device, Michelson Interferometer
In this paper we present 1D and 2D systolic Distributed Arithmetic (DA) based structures that are designed for the implementation of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. The paper compares the 1D DA based systolic structure with 1D systolic DA based decomposition method. The filters are implemented on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro (XC2VP30) FPGA using HDL and system metrics like Area, Gate Count, Maximum Usable Frequency and Power consumption are estimated for different filter orders and address... Topics: Distributed arithmetic (DA), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Finite Impulse Response (FIR)...
In this paper, a built-in self repair technique for word-oriented two-port SRAM memories is presented. The technique is implemented by additional hardware design instead of traditional software diagnostic procedures and the computation time is minimized. A built-in self-test (BIST) is used to detect the faulty locations which are isolated immediately after detection. Therefore, the redirection process can be executed as soon as possible. Spare rows are used to replace the faulty rows. The... Topics: SRAM, two-port memories, PVT faults, fault isolation, BISR
The application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to programming of pavement maintenance activities at the network level is demonstrated. The application of the PSO technique and its relevance to solve the programming problem in a pavement management system (PMS) are discussed. The robust and quick search capability of PSO enable it to effectively handle the highly constrained problem of pavement management activities programming, which has an extremely large solution space of astronomical... Topics: Particle Swarm Optimization, Pavement Management System, Optimization
-byDebabrata Kumar Karmokar, Khaled Mahbub Morshed, Md. Selim Hossain and Md. Nurunnabi Mollah
Wideband low profile double Inverted-F antenna (DIFA) for 5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN and 5.5 GHz WiMAX applications by means of numerical simulation is presented. The antenna has compact size of 9×20 mm2 and provides a wide bandwidth of 2.1 GHz (4675 MHz~6775 MHz) which covers the 5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN and 5.5 GHz WiMAX applications. Moreover it has very high peak gain and lower gain variation within the 10 dB return loss bandwidth. The VSWR of DIFA varies from 1.0412 to 1.1960 within the antenna return loss... Topics: Inverted-F antenna (IFA), Double IFA (DIFA), Low profile antenna, WLAN, WiMAX.
A novel example-based process for automated colorization of grayscale images using texture descriptors (ACTD) without any human intervention is proposed. By analyzing a set of sample color images, coherent regions of homogeneous textures are extracted. A multi-channel filtering technique is used for texture-based image segmentation. For each area of interest, state of the art texture descriptors are then computed and stored, along with corresponding color information. These texture descriptors... Topics: Image colorization, Fuzzy C-means clustering, Gabor transform, CBIR
In this paper, two different Wavelet based Image Compression techniques are compared. The techniques involved in the comparison process are WDR and ASWDR. The above two techniques are implemented with different types of wavelet codecs. Wavelet difference reduction (WDR) has recently been proposed as a method for efficient embedded image coding. This method retains all of the important features like low complexity, region of interest, embeddedness, and progressive SNR. ASWDR adapts the scanning... Topics: Wavelet Image Compression, WDR, ASWDR
Parallel parking is challenge for all drivers say amateurs or the experts. An automatic car parking system is a solution to this ordeal. This vehicular technology has been implemented using many other systems but a cost effective, simple and accurate solution will be greatly appreciated. This paper explains in detail a simple and precise autonomous carparking algorithm for Ackerman steering configuration. A twopart trajectory-planning algorithm consists of the steering planning and simple... Topics: Automatic Parking System, Path Planning, Tracking Algorithm, Parallel Parking, Parking Sensors.
This paper presents a comprehensive non-linear dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that can be used for transient behaviors studies. The model based on electrochemical and thermal equations, accounts for temperature dynamics and output voltage losses. The relaxation time is strongly related to the transient temperature distribution of the solid oxide fuel cell structure. Therefore, it is in the order of some minutes depending on the design parameters and the operating conditions.... Topics: Fuel cell, FCPP, SOFC
This paper presents an approach for reducing speckle in ultrasound images using Coupled Partial Differential Equation (CPDE) which has been obtained by uniting secondorder and the fourth-order partial differential equations. Using PDE to reduce the speckle is the noise-smoothing methods which is getting attention widely, because PDE can keep the edge well when it reduces the noise. We also introduced a median regulator to guide energy source to boost the features in the image and regularize... Topics: Ultrasound, Speckle, PDE, median filter.
-byProf. Hapse Manik M., Dr. A.G. Thosar, Prof. Sanjay M. Shinde and Prof. Satish A. Markad
This paper analyzes the probability distribution of wind speed data recorded by Maharashtra Energy Development Agency (MEDA) wind farm at Ahmednagar (India). The main objective is to validate the wind energy probability by using probability distribution function (PDF) of available wind potential. The wind speed is measured with the help of three anemometers S30, S45, S60 placed at 30 m, 45 m, and 60 m height. Mean values are recorded and stored for every hour using a Data logger. For accounting... Topics: probability distribution function, weibull distribution, maximum likelihood, lognormal...
Designing the digital gates and circuits has been based on separating the designing levels: circuit level designing and device level designing. In this paper, we will discuss the point that the concept of contact in this distinction is a key-concept and that, by the progress of technology and advancing towards very tiny quantum devices as SET, necessity of having contact, because of its size is considered a basic obstacle; therefore, separating the design into designing the circuit level and... Topics: Digital Gate, Contact, Macro-gate, KVL, KCL, Resonant tunneling diode
In this paper, a novel technique is applied to detect fault in the transmission line using wavelet transform. Three phase currents are monitored at both ends of the transmission line using global positioning system synchronizing clock. Wavelet transform, which is very fast and sensitive to noise, is used to extract transients in the line currents for fault detection. Fault index is calculated based on the sum of local and remote end detail coefficients and compared with threshold value to... Topics: Wavelet transform, transmission line faults, power system protection, fault transients,...
Data mining helps to find predictive information from large databases. Companies use predictive modeling tools for strategic decision-making. It helps companies to identify and account for the key assumptions that drive business value—enabling good decision making that leads to predictable results. By analyzing the company’s historical information we can anticipate these changes. This paper aims at providing a proposed data mining solution that can be used for automotive market, especially... Topics: Data Mining, Predictive Modeling, Linear regression Analysis, WEKA
-bySadhna K. Mishra, Arvind Rajawat, and R. P. Singh
The paper presents the design of target NISC (No Instruction Set Computer) architecture for matrix application in a C based design flow. It starts with the implementation of a standard application program which generates customized designs using the NISC toolset. Further, it demonstrates and analyzes the compilation and simulation results of several matrix applications on a number of different available NISC architectures in terms of register and execution cycle-counts. Subsequently, a... Topics: NISC, ASIP, CISC, RISC, Datapath
The sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network are normally microcontroller based which are having limited computational capability related to various applications. This paper describes the selection, specification and realization of a wireless sensor node using the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based architecture for an early detection of hazards (e.g fire and gas-leak ) in mines area. The FPGAs in it’s place are more efficient for complex computations in compare to microcontrollers,... Topics: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), system on programmable chip (SOPC), FPGA
Software metrics is applied evaluating and assuring software code quality, it requires a model to convert internal quality attributes to code reliability. High degree of complexity in a component (function, subroutine, object, class etc.) is bad in comparison to a low degree of complexity in a component. Various internal codes attribute which can be used to indirectly assess code quality. In this paper, we analyze the software complexity measures for regression testing which enables the... Topics: Software Complexity, Software Metrics, Regression Testing, Control Flow Metrics1
A distribution system is an interface between the bulk power system and the consumers. The radial distribution system is popular among these because of its low cost and simple design. The voltage instability in the power system is characterized by a monotonic voltage drop, which is slow at first and becomes abrupt after some time when the system is unable to meet the increasing power demand. Therefore to overcome these problems capacitors are used. The installation of the shunt capacitors on... Topics: Electrical Distribution Network, Optimal Capacitors Placement, Dimension reducing distribution load...
Credibility of a web-based document is an important concern, when a large number of documents is available on internet for a given subject. In this paper, various criteria that affect the credibility of a document are explored. An attempt is made to automate the process of assigning a credibility score to a web-based document. Presently the prototype of the tool developed is restricted to only four criteria – type of website, date of update, sentiment analysis and a pre-defined Google page... Topics: credibility score, source evaluation, automation, web-based multiple documents
This paper investigates the problem of dynamic multiuser subchannel allocation in the downlink OFDM systems. In traditional TDMA or FDMA systems, resource allocation for each user is non-adaptively fixed. Since the subchannel allocations among the users are not optimized, a group of users is likely to suffer from poor channel gains resulting from large path loss and random fading. To resolve this problem a low-complexity adaptive subchannel allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper. By... Topics: OFDM, Sub-Channel, Multiuser, Variable Data Rate.
This paper presents an alternative approach for the design of linear phase digital low pass FIR filter using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach (PSO-CFIWA). FIR filter design is a multimodal optimization problem. The conventional gradient based optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. Given the filter specification to be realized, PSO algorithm generates a set of filter coefficients and tries to meet the ideal frequency... Topics: FIR Filter, PSO, GA, Optimization, Magnitude Response, Convergence, Low Pass Filter
-byDurbadal Mandal, Debanjali Sadhu and Sakti Prasad Ghoshal
Circular antenna array has gained immense popularity in the field of communications nowadays. It has proved to be a better alternative over other types of antenna array configuration due to its all-azimuth scan capability, and a beam pattern which can be kept invariant. This paper is basically concerned with the thinning of a large multiple concentric circular ring arrays of uniformly excited isotropic antennas based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) method. In this paper a 9... Topics: Concentric Circular Antenna Arrays, Particle Swarm Optimization, Thinning, Sidelobe Level
A refined space vector modulation scheme for multilevel inverters, using only the instantaneous sampled reference signals is presented in this paper. The proposed space vector pulse width modulation technique does not require the sector information and look-up tables to select the appropriate switching vectors. The inverter leg switching times are directly obtained from the instantaneous sampled reference signal amplitudes and centers the switching times for the middle space vectors in a... Topics: dual-fed induction motor, space vector PWM, sampled sinusoidal reference signals, triangular...
A conventional motorized wheelchair has been fitted with sensors and programmed with an intelligent guidance system to efficiently maneuver itself automatically from one point to another in a facility equipped with a grid of sensors that provide the wheelchair with the basic map of its course. The device described in this paper has been conceptualized such that once the wheelchair is given information regarding the starting and stopping point in a controlled facility, the wheelchair with this... Topics: wheelchair, automatic, motorized, sensor aided, path finding
This article presents a new current-mode multiplier/divider based on MO-CDTA (Multiple output current conveyor transconductance amplifier). The circuit description is very simple, its construction consists of only one MO-CDTA. Without external passive elements, the proposed circuit is then suitable for IC architecture. The PSpice simulation and experimental results are depicted, and agree well with the theoretical anticipation. From simulation results, the maximum power consumption is... Topics: multiplier/divider, current-mode, MO-CDTA
This paper presents a wavelet based technique for detection and classification of abnormal conditions that occur on power distribution lines. The transients associated with these conditions contain a large spectrum of frequencies, which are analyzed using wavelet transform approach. The proposed technique depends on a sensitive fault detection parameter (denoted SFD) calculated from wavelet multi-resolution decomposition of the three phase currents. The simulation results of this study clearly... Topics: Wavelet Transform, Fault detection, Distribution Networks, Inrush currents
One of the challenging issues in Spread-Spectrum Modulation (SSM) is the design of the Pseudo - Random or Pseudo - Noise (PN) sequence generator as an option to the already available methods. This work is related to the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for generation of the PN sequence during transmission and reception of a SSM based system. The benefit of the ANN - assisted PN generator shall be that it will simplify the design process of the PN - generator and yet provide high... Topics: SSM, PN sequence, ANN, Rayleigh, Rician
Power electronics systems are non-linear systems, which consume more reactive power and also the loads they feed are mostly inductive loads which leads to a poor power factor. Various compensation techniques are available to bring the power factor nearer to unity. In this paper, a novel compensator is proposed, where in-phase and quadrature components of the supply current are vector-controlled. Implementation of this compensator in a power electronic system operating with a very poor power... Topics: Total Harmonic Distortion, Vector Control, Compensator, Switching, Power Electronic Converters
The objective of this work is to propose an image denoising technique and compare it with image denoising using ridgelets. The proposed method uses slantlet transform instead of wavelets in ridgelet transform. Experimental result shows that the proposed method is more effective than ridgelets in noise removal. The proposed method is effective in compressing images while preserving edges. Topics: ridgelet, slantlet transform, image denoising, compression, huffman, edge
Modern Enterprise Software Systems entail many challenges such as rapidly changing business scenario, increase in complexity, and shorter time to market and providing business agility without compromising on the quality. Ensuring productivity, quality, consistency, cost effective, reduced cycle time have become a mandate for the teams dealing with modern enterprise software systems. Fluent Interfaces is a powerful technique, which help in taming the programming complexities, reducing... Topics: Fluent Interfaces, Enterprise Software Systems, Application Programmable Interface (API). Domain...
Spectrum analysis is very essential requirement in instrumentation and communication signal interception .Spectrum analysis is normally carried out by online or offline FFT processing. But the FFT being highly mathematical intensive, is not suitable for low area and low power applications. Offline FFT processing can’t give the real time spectrum estimation which is essential in communication signal interception. Online FFT computation takes very high resources, which makes the system costly... Topics: FFT, Goertzel algorithm, Spectrum Analysis, VHDL, XilinX ISE, Modelsim, Spartan 3E-FPGA board.
In this paper, a new active snubber circuit is developed for PFC converter. This active snubber circuit provides zero voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero current transition (ZCT) turn off for the main switch without any extra current or voltage stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS) without voltage stress. Although there is a current stress on the auxiliary switch, it is decreased by diverting it to the output side with coupling inductance. The... Topics: Power factor correction (PFC), soft switching (SS), ZCS, ZCT, and ZVT
In this paper with the help of Matlab/Simulink and dSPACE, the Switch-Mode DC Converter is built in real-time to control the output voltage of the controller using PWM algorithm. First, the Simulink model of Switch-Mode DC Converter (i.e. Single-Pole and Two-Pole Converter Model) is built and, after verifying the results, it is implemented in real-time. Next, a DC motor is connected to the output terminals (i.e. Phase A1 and Phase B1) of the Power Electronics Board such that a variable voltage... Topics: Single-pole, Two-pole, dSPACE
Power system performance is affected by dynamic characteristics of hydraulic governor-turbines during and following any disturbance, such as occurrence of a fault, loss of a transmission line or a rapid change of load. Accurate modelling of hydraulic System is essential to characterize and diagnose the system response. In this article the mathematical modeling of hydraulic turbine is presented. The model is capable to implement the digital systems for monitoring and control replacing the... Topics: mathematical modeling, simulation, hydraulic turbine
The problem of control associated wind energy conversion systems using horizontal-axis fixed-pitch variable speed low-power, working in the partial load region, consisting in the energy conversion maximization, is approached here under the assumption that the wind turbine model and its parameters are poorly known. Intelligent gradient detection method by using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) fuzzy control approach is proposed control solution aims at driving the average position of the... Topics: MPPT, wind energy, optimal control, WECS
Previous researches [1,2] on Fused Deposition through Electrochemical Discharge (FDED) process have revealed that the periodic instantaneous current wave form (ICWF) is the characteristic of the process and it is significant to maintain the nature of current waveform in order to have a deposition of consistent metallographic properties. The precise control of process parameters is essential for maintaining the current wave form. The standoff distance between electrodes (SOD) is the most... Topics: Fused Deposition by Electrochemical Discharge, Feedback control, Discrete event control system,...
This article presents a 3rd current-mode quadrature oscillator using current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA) and operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) as active element as active elements. The proposed circuit is realized from a noninverting lossless integrator and an inverting second order low-pass filter. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be electronically/orthogonally controlled via input bias currents. The circuit description is... Topics: oscillator, current-mode, CCCCTA, OTA
Humans are able to process a face in a variety of ways to categorize it by its identity, along with a number of other demographic characteristics, including race, gender , and age. Experimental results are based on a face database containing subjects. Race and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Experimental results are indicated that participants categorized the race of the face and this categorization drives the perceptual process. A face image data set is... Topics: race identification, PCA, face recognition
The image processing tools are extensively used on the development of new algorithms and mathematical tools for the advanced processing of medical and biological images. Given an MRI scan, first segment the tumor region in the MRI brain image and study the pixel intensity values. A detailed procedure using Matlab script is written to extract tumor region in CT scan Brain Image and MRI Scan Brain Image. MRI Scan has higher resolution and easier identification compare to CT scan Brain image. Fast... Topics: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Fast Fourier Transform, Zero padded Transform and Windowed Fourier...
Variable Frequency Transformer (VFT) is a controllable bi-directional transmission device that can transfer power between asynchronous networks. It avoids both HVDC link and FACTS based power transmission control system. Basically, it is a rotatory transformer whose torque is adjusted in order to control the power flow. In this paper, a simulated model of VFT is used as a controllable bidirectional power transmission device that can control power flow through the connected asynchronous power... Topics: Variable frequency transformer (VFT), MATLAB, Asynchronous power systems, Power flow.
This paper presents 1-bit full adder cell in emerging technologies like FinFET and CNFET that operates in the moderate inversion region for energy efficiency, robustness and higher performance. The performance of the adder is improved by the optimum selection of important process parameters like oxide and fin thickness in FinFET and number of carbon nanotubes, chirality vector and pitch in CNFET. The optimized CNFET-based full adder (OP-CNFET) has higher speed, lower PDP (power-delay product)... Topics: Variability, power-delay product (PDP), moderate inversion region (MIR), optimized FinFET-based...
Non-minimum phase characteristic of hydro turbine shows an opposite initial power surge in the event of frequency disturbance, thus possesses widely different characteristic than thermal generating unit. This paper presents Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of an interconnected two-area multiple-units hydro-hydro power system in restructured electricity market. The step load perturbation to such a system results in heavy frequency oscillations and the system is unable to regain its stable... Topics: AGC, Deregulation, SMES, TCPS